List of Brain Diseases

Brain, being the sensitive and master structure, is equally susceptible to any kind of infections and other disorders of varying intensity, such as brain cancer, tumors, Alzheimer's disease, alcoholism, amnesia, altitude sickness, autism, epilepsy, and so on. Though it is very difficult to address the complex mental abnormalities, considerable advancement in the field of health science and medical research has offered various remedial strategies to most of such conditions. Now let's discuss, turn by turn, some of the major brain diseases with their diagnostic symptoms and frequently recommended treatment measures:

Brain Cancer/Tumor

Talking about the brain diseases list, cancer and tumor are the terms that are used alternatively as each refers to the accumulation of the malignant mass caused by the uncontrolled division of cells in any tissue across the body. But, still there lies certain difference, i.e. tumors may be either cancerous or non cancerous (benign) that can be located and diagnosed by Computed Tomography Scans, an MRI, biopsy, and electroencephalography, etc. Critical symptoms include severe headaches, vomiting, double vision, seizures, mental confusion, loss of memory and paralysis that can be treated by surgical therapy, microsurgery, radiation therapy, laser surgery and use of corticosteroids.

Alzheimer's Disease

Characterized by the gradual degeneration of neurons in brain that are associated with the process of cognitive information, its symptoms are very slow to appear and after getting progressively worse, they become irreversible. Some of the most frequently observed indicative signs include, short-term memory loss, impaired judgment, language difficulties, recognition issues and difficulty in walking that can be relieved by medications, and inhibitors of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, viz. rivastigmine, galantamine, and donepezil.


Caused by the excessive ingestion of alcohol, it is a chronic illness of brain and may be the outcome of social, psychological, genetic and psychological factors. The critical symptoms involve the dependence and extreme desire for alcoholic consumption, thus given the name of alcoholism that may lead to severe brain damage and early death of the young adult. The critical conditions are very difficult to deal with, but social assistance (supportive therapy), psychological therapy, avoiding alcohol, coping mechanisms, administration of detoxifying agents and medications.


Caused by psychological trauma, brain damage, disease, hysteria, head injury or nervous functional disorder, it results in the systematic, partial or complete loss of memory. However, the excessive and frequent use of hypnotic drugs may lead to the temporary onset of the associated symptoms. Both of its types, viz. anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia, can be addressed without any treatments, but if this is not the case, the lost memory can be regained by means of learning fresh non-declarative knowledge involving perceptual and conceptual priming.

Mountain Sickness

Also known as 'Altitude Sickness', it indicate the malfunctioning of the major organ of central nervous system (brain) caused by the pathological effects of high altitude on human beings. When you go above the sea level, you gradually experience decreased or insufficient oxygen pressure at the height of about 8,000 feet or more. Some of the obvious symptoms include shortness of breath, nausea, headache and sleep disturbances that can easily be relieved either by descent to the lower altitudes where there is normal oxygen pressure, or by the prescription of acetazolamide, injectable steroids and supplemental oxygen.


Having a genetic basis (mutations or rare combinations of common genetic variants), this another item of the list of brain disease neural development in which you suffer from communication difficulties, and impaired social interaction. A child affected with this disease may not usually be able to live an independent life, but they can gain self control by the modification of their early behavior, cognitive intervention and medical management. The Austin spectrum disorders are very common among children in the United States of America as more than half of the newborn babies that can be effectively treated by prescription of antipsychotics, stimulants and antidepressants (e.g. anticonvulsants, psychoactive drugs).


Associated with different behavioral, physiological and nutritional, genetic, and biological factors, like alcoholism, drug addiction, brain cancer, stroke or brain trauma, it is characterized by onset of seizures owing to the interruption in the normal electrical activity of your brain. The disease is more common among the inhabitants of developing nations of the world (about 80%), and according to a survey, about 50 million people are suffering from the seizure disorder worldwide. Sudden fear, uncontrolled movement of body parts, confusion and loss of consciousness are some the associated symptoms that can be relieved by the best available medications, surgical therapy and use of specialized diets.

Concussion of the Brain

Characterized by the temporary loss of consciousness resulting from a forceful blow or injury to the head, it is the brief interruption of normal electrical activity in the brain. However, it cannot be equated to more severe injuries or traumas of brain, such as cerebral lacerations and bruises. Under ordinary circumstances, the symptoms can easily be relieved within a day a two, but repeated incidences of brain concussions can even lead to permanent brain damage. The treatment usually involves bed rest under observation for about 24 hours, but severe headache can be relieved by the prescription of ibuprofen or acetaminophen, and the use of aspirin has to be avoided because it may lead to internal bleeding.

Brain Abscess

It is characterized by an infection and accumulation of pus in the brain that irritates or destroys the surrounding brain tissue, and raises pressure inside the rigid skull. Approximately, ten percent of the cases are reported to be fatal, but you can get fully recovered if immediate medical treatment is provided. The symptoms include nausea, severe headache, partial paralysis, drowsiness, epileptic seizures and the discharge of pus from the ear or nose that can be relieved by large doses of antibiotics, surgical therapy and use of anticonvulsant drugs. However, the increased awareness of healthcare has made the disease very rare because any kinds of infections in the body are treated by the use of antibiotics before they worsen to cause such complications.

Brain Hemorrhage

One of the two main types of strokes, it is characterized by the rupture of artery and consequential bleeding that may be either intracerebral (into the brain) or subarachnoid (into the space between the membranes). There are a number of diagnostic symptoms, viz. excruciating headache, stiff neck, mental confusion, nausea, vomiting, partial paralysis, speech difficulty, loss of consciousness and double vision. The diagnosis can be carried out through lumbar puncture, CT scan, MRI and arteriography, and the patient has to be taken to the ICU of hospital for emergency treatment that may involve life support and surgical repair of the ruptured artery.


Occurring usually in childhood below or up to the age of 18, the disease retards or reduces up to 70% of the intellectual capabilities of the victim who faces many difficulties in routine life, namely, social interaction, independent living, learning, communication, working and self-care. However, according to historical definition, the disease is most likely to be present if the intelligence quotient or IQ score is below 70. Some of the obvious symptoms include difficulty in language & learning, loss of memory, difficulty in problem solving and lack of social inhibitors. Generally there are no medications available for the effective treatment of the disease, but in case of further medical complications, the health care provider may suggest you a number of other medications.

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