Pituitary Gland Function
One of the dominant functions of the pituitary is to direct and control other endocrine glands and organs of the body by sending them chemical messengers through blood stream. The hormones secreted by this gland perform following major functions which are primarily concerned with maintenance, growth and reproduction.
Growth Hormone assigned the task of initiating and regulating growth processes of various parts and organs in the body, for example, bone enlargement that increases the height of a person.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone abbreviated as TSH, this secretion of the Pituitary controls the functioning of thyroid gland located in the neck region just below "Adam's Apple".
Prolactin responsible for the stimulation and regulation of milk production processes or lactation in the lactating women.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Follicle Stimulating Hormone gonads or testes play a vital role in reproduction via the secretion of FSH that stimulates the testes in males and the ovaries in females and ensures the effective production of sperms and eggs.
MSH Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone is secreted by intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland and delivered to the specialized skin cells, called melanocytes which are stimulated and perform their function as pigment cells.
Oxytocin & Vasopressin
The posterior lobe of hypophysis serves as a store house for the hormones secreted by hypothalamus, like oxytocin and vasopressin, which are then transported to the assigned target.
The third lobe of pituitary gland, also called pars intermedia, forms the boundary line between the anterior and posterior lobes, but it is either reduced in size or entirely absent in human adults. The posterior part of the hypophysis, called neurohypophysis, is neither a gland nor synthesises any hormones; it is made up of a collection of axons projecting from hypothalamus. It only receives and stores hormones, generated by hypothalamus, being stored there before they are secreted into the blood stream. The hormones released by posterior lobe of pituitary include vasopressin and oxytocin. A mammalian hormone, oxytocin, plays in important role in the reproductive processes, like child birth and milk ejection. The AVP (Arginine Vasopressin) is responsible for active re-absorption of water in the kidney cells to regulate the water-content of body.